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美國防部測試高空“間諜”氣球 斯諾登預言成真

http://dailynews.sina.com   2019年08月04日 05:24   環球網

  原標題:美國防部測試高空“間諜”氣球,監控範圍覆蓋6個州,斯諾登預言成真

  美國軍方正在美國中西部6個州,使用高空氣球,進行大範圍監控測試。

  據英國《衛報》爆料,美國聯邦通信委員會(Federal Communications Commission)的文件顯示,美國軍方正在中西部的南達科他、明尼蘇達、愛荷華、威斯康星、密蘇里、伊利諾伊6個州範圍內,使用實驗性高海拔氣球進行廣域範圍的監控測試。

  根據一份代表內華達山脈公司(Sierra Nevada Corporation)(一家航空航天和國防公司)提交的文件顯示,這些氣球是爲了“提供一個持續的監視系統,來定位和阻止毒品走私和國土安全威脅”(provide a persistent surveillance system to locate and deter narcotic trafficking and homeland security threats)。

  The balloons are carrying hi-tech radars designed to simultaneously track many individual vehicles day or night, through any kind of weather。 The tests, which have not previously been reported, received an FCC license to operate from mid-July until September, following similar flights licensed last year。

  氣球上裝有高科技雷達,可以在任何天氣條件下,不分晝夜地同時跟蹤許多車輛。這些測試此前從未被報道過。這些測試獲得了聯邦通訊委員會的許可,測試可以從7月中旬一直持續到9月。去年也有類似的測試行動。

  Arthur Holland Michel, the co-director of the Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College in New York, said, “What this new technology proposes is to watch everything at once。 Sometimes it’s referred to as ‘combat TiVo’ because when an event happens somewhere in the surveilled area, you can potentially rewind the tape to see exactly what occurred, and rewind even further to see who was involved and where they came from。”

  紐約巴德學院無人機研究中心的聯席主任阿瑟·霍蘭德·米歇爾說,“這項新技術的目的是要同時觀察所有東西。有時它被稱爲“戰鬥TiVo”(TiVo是美國數字錄象機設備,能幫助人們錄下和篩選電視上播放過的節目),因爲當一個事件發生在被監視區域的某個地方時,你可以倒帶,看看到底發生了什麼,甚至可以倒回去,看看誰參與其中,他們來自哪裏。”

  ▲Pentagon testing mass surveillance balloons across the US (via The Guardian)

美墨邊境上的海關邊境巡邏監控氣球(圖 via AFP)美墨邊境上的海關邊境巡邏監控氣球(圖 via AFP)

  五角大樓從偏遠的南達科他州放飛了25個無人駕駛太陽能氣球,飛行高度達到65000英尺。它們從南達科他州升空,漂浮250英里,途經明尼蘇達、愛荷華、威斯康星和密蘇里州的部分區域,最後在伊利諾伊州中部降落。

(圖 via Getty Images)(圖 via Getty Images)

  此外,這些由美國國防部的南方司令部(United States Southern Command)放飛的氣球還搭載了不少設備。

  The balloons also carry small vehicles containing sensors and communications equipment。 The loadout includes a synthetic aperture radar designed to be able to detect every single moving car or boat active in a 25-mile field beneath the balloon。

  這些氣球還攜帶裝有傳感器和通訊設備的小型運載工具。載荷包括一個合成孔徑雷達,設計用來探測氣球下方25英里區域內移動着的每一輛汽車或每一艘船隻。

  The craft operate as a network, fitted with advanced mesh networking technologies meaning they can communicate with one another。 The balloons can pass information—including video—to each other and to receivers on the ground。

  這些氣球配備了先進的網狀網絡技術,運作起來成爲一個網絡,意味着它們可以彼此通信。氣球可以互相傳遞信息,包括視頻,也可以傳遞給地面上的接收器。

  The Guardian suggested the balloons may be carrying Sierra Nevada‘s advanced Gorgon Stare video capture system, which is already in use in U.S。 military drones。 The Pentagon has also used Gorgon Stare on surveillance blimps in Afghanistan。 It consists of nine cameras recording panoramic images, enabling operators to capture activity across an entire city at once。

  《衛報》表示,氣球可能攜帶內華達山脈公司先進的“戈爾貢凝視”視頻捕捉系統,該系統已經在美國軍用無人機上使用。在阿富汗,五角大樓還在監視飛船上使用“戈爾貢凝視”。它由9個攝像機組成,可以記錄全景圖像,使操作者能夠同時捕捉整個城市的活動。

  ▲Pentagon Is Testing High Altitude Surveillance Balloons to ‘Watch Everything at Once’: ‘It’s Disturbing‘ (via Newsweek)

(圖 via Alamy)(圖 via Alamy)

  不過,這些測試已經引起了民權活動人士的擔憂,他們認爲,監控行動必然會收集大量有關公民日常生活的數據。

  “We do not think that American cities should be subject to wide-area surveillance in which every vehicle could be tracked wherever they go,” Jay Stanley, a policy analyst at the American Civil Liberties Union, told the Guardian。 “Even in tests, they’re still collecting a lot of data on Americans: who’s driving to the union house, the church, the mosque, the Alzheimer’s clinic。”

  美國公民自由聯盟政策分析師傑伊•斯坦利向《衛報》表示:“我們認爲,美國城市不應受到廣域監控,在這種監控下,每輛車,無論走到哪裏,都可以被追蹤。即使處於測試階段,他們仍在收集大量美國人的數據:誰正開着車去學生會所、教堂、清真寺、阿爾茨海默症診所。”

  We should not go down the road of allowing this to be used in the United States and it’s disturbing to hear that these tests are being carried out, by the military no less。

  我們不應該讓這種東西在美國使用,聽到這些試驗是由軍方進行的,真令人不安。

  American whistleblower and former surveillance contractor Edward Snowden, who in 2013 leaked a massive cache of material illicitly obtained from the National Security Agency (NSA), was also critical of the tests。

  美國泄密者、前監控承包商愛德華·斯諾登也對這些測試提出了批評。2013年,斯諾登泄露了大量從美國國家安全局非法獲得的材料。

  “They always tell us the tools of mass surveillance are intended for use only against the faraway Other; the foreign enemy, the terrorist, the criminal,” Snowden said in a tweet。 “And then, just a few years later, we realize precisely the same system secretly surrounds us at home。”

  “他們總是告訴我們,大規模監控的工具只針對遙遠的其他目標;外國敵人,恐怖分子,罪犯,”斯諾登在推特上說道。“然後,僅僅幾年之後,我們就意識到,同樣的系統恰恰也在我們身邊悄悄存在。”

  ▲Pentagon testing ‘spy balloons’ across Midwest for ‘persistent’ domestic surveillance (via RT)

愛荷華州住宅區(圖 via Alamy)愛荷華州住宅區(圖 via Alamy)

  整合:Du Qiongfang

  資料:The Guardian, Newsweek, RT

  圖/題圖:AFP, Getty Images, Alamy

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